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Do it Yourself » Kiwi Pumps Useful Conversionss » Conversion Calculators

## Who needs to know anything about pumps? You do! Mechanical pumps are the second most common machine in the world, after electric motors.

 Metric to U.S. System Conversions, Calculations, Equations and Formulas: Millimeters (mm) x 0.03937 = inches (")(in) Centimeters (cm) x 0.3937 = inches (")(in) Meters (m) x 39.37 = inches (")(in) Meters (m) x 3.281 = feet (')(ft) Meters (m) x 1.094 = yards (yds) Kilometers (km) x 0.62137 = miles (mi) Kilometers (km) x 3280.87 = feet (')(ft) Liters (l) x 0.2642 = gallons (U.S.)(gals) Liters (l) x 0.0353 = cubic feet Bars x 14.5038 = pounds per square inch (PSI) Kilograms (kg) x 2.205 = Pounds (P) Kilometers (km) x 1093.62 = yards (yds) Square centimeters x 0.155 = square inches Square meters x 10.76 = square feet Square kilometers x 0.386 = square miles Cubic centimeters x 0.06102 = cubic inches Cubic meters x 35.315 = cubic feet Go Top
 U.S. to Metric Conversions, Formulas, Calculations and Equations: Inches (")(in) x 25.4 = millimeters (mm) Inches (")(in) x 2.54 = centimeters (cm) Inches (")(in) x 0.0254 = meters (m) Feet (')(ft) x 0.3048 = meters (m) Yards (yds) x 0.9144 = meters (m) Miles (mi) x 1.6093 = kilometers (km) Feet (')(ft) x 0.0003048 = kilometers (km) Gallons (gals) x 3.78 = liters (l) Cubic feet x 28.316 = liters (l) Pounds (P) x 0.4536 = kilograms (kg) Square inches x 6.452 = square centimeters Square feet x 0.0929 = square meters Square miles x 2.59 = square kilometers Acres x 4046.85 = square meters Cubic inches x 16.39 = cubic centimeters Cubic feet x 0.0283 = cubic meters Go Top
 Area and Distance Conversions, Equations, Calculations and Formulas: Acre x 43560 = square feet Inches x 0.0833 = feet Feet x 12 = inches Square mile ("Sections") x 640 = Acres Miles x 5280 = feet Circumference of circle x 0.3183 = Diameter of the circle Diameter of circle x 3.14 = Circumference of circle Diameter squared x 0.7854 = Area of circle Radius squared x 3.14 = Area of circle Miles x 1760 = yards Square Miles x 259 = hectares Square kilometers x 100 = hectares Acres x 40.47 = areas Hectares x 100 = areas Areas x 100 = square meters Yards x 3 = feet Acres x 4840 = square yards Go Top
 Water Pressure Equations, Conversions, Formulas and Calculations: Feet head (of water) x .433 = Pounds per square inch (PSI) Feet head (of water) x 0.3049 = meters head (of water) Feet head (of water) x 0.0295 = atmospheres Feet head (of water) x 2.988 = kiloPascals Meters head (of water) x 3.28 = feet head (of water) atmosphere (Atm) x 1.013 = 1 bar (b) atmosphere x 14.696 = Pounds per square inch (PSI) bars x 1.033 = kilograms per square centimeter bars x 14.67 = Pounds per square inch (PSI) bars x 100 = kiloPascals Kilograms per square centimeter x 14.223 = pounds per square inch (PSI) Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 2.31 = feet head (ft. hd.) Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 0.0703 = kilograms per square centimeter Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 0.06895 = bars Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 0.06805 = atmospheres Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 2.31 = feet head (of water) Pounds per square inch (PSI) x 6.896 = kiloPascals kiloPascal x 0.145 = Pounds per square inch (PSI) kiloPascal x 0.01 = bars kiloPascal x 0.334 = feet head (of water) Go Top
 Flow and Water Volume Formulas, Conversions, Calculations and Equations: U.S. Gallons per minute (gpm) x .1337 = Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute x 7.48 = U.S. gallons per minute Cubic feet per second x 448.8 = U.S. gallons per minute U.S. gallons per minute x 0.00223 = Cubic feet per second Acre inches per hour x 453 = U.S. gallons per minute British Imperial gallons x 1.201 = U.S. gallons U.S. gallons x 0.833 = British Imperial gallons Acre feet x 325,850 = U.S. gallons Acre inches x 27154 = U.S. gallons Velocity in feet per second = (0.408 x GPM) / Inside diameter of pipe in inches, squared Q=AV (quantity = area x velocity) ("the basic equation of water flow") (example: quantity in cubic feet per second = square feet of area x feet per second velocity) One inch of water depth = 0.62 gallons per square foot of area GPM x 226.8 = liters per hour cubic feet per minute x 1699 = liters per hour acre inches per hour x 1712.3 = liters per minute acre feet x 1231.7 = cubic meters acre inch x 102.64 = cubic meters velocity (feet/second) x 0.3047 = velocity (meters/second) velocity (meters/second) x 3.281 = velocity (feet/second) Go Top
 Pump Calculations, Conversions, Equations and Formulas: The following formulas assume 55% pump efficiency (the standard assumption). Note: Horsepower is Brake horse power for an electric motor. Do not use for fuel-powered pump engines! GPM = (horsepower x 2178) / feet head Feet head = (2178 x horsepower) / GPM Efficiency of pump = (GPM x feet head) / (horsepower x 3960) Horse powers x 745.7 = watts (W) Water flow (in cubic meters per second) = 0.55 x pump power (watts) / pressure (pascals) Water flow (in liters per second) = 5.43 x pump power (kilowatts) / pressure (bars) Go Top
 Miscellaneous Irrigation Formulas, Conversions, Equations and Calculations: Sprinkler Precipitation Rate: Note: "head spacing" is the distance between sprinkler heads. L = length between heads in the row, W = width between rows. Therefore "head spacing " = L x W. Use the GPM value for a full circle sprinkler. So if your sprinklers are all half circles, you need to double the GPM value so it is equivalent to a full circle value. Precipitation rate for square sprinkler spacing: (GPM of full circle sprinkler x 96.3) / head spacing in feet = precipitation rate in inches per hour Precipitation rate for triangular sprinkler spacing: (GPM of full circle sprinkler x 96.3) / (head spacing in feet x 0.866) = precipitation rate in inches per hour Example: Rotors arranged in rows. The rows are 25 feet apart and the sprinklers are 30 feet apart in the row. The heads are arranged in a triangle pattern. The heads use 6 GPM. (6 x 96.3) / [(25 x 30) x 0.866] 577.8 /  x 0.866 577.8 / 649.5 0.89 inches per hour Go Top
 Friction Loss Calculators: Friction loss calculations are for standard PVC pipe. Cl 160 PVC pipe is not commonly available in 1/2" size, therefore the calculator assumes that Cl 315 pipe will be substituted. Cl 200 PVC pipe is not commonly available in 1/2" size, therefore the calculator assumes that Cl 315 pipe will be substituted. Cl 160 PVC pipe is not commonly available in 3/4" size, therefore the calculator assumes that Cl 200 pipe will be substituted. This calculator uses a contracted form of the Hazen-Williams formula which is the industry standard for calculating friction loss. A conservative C coefficient of 140 is used for PVC pipe (many authorities use 150 which is risky as it leaves no margin for error). Velocities over 7 feet per second should not be allowed in PVC pipe. Velocities over 5 feet per second should be avoided, especially with pressures higher than 80 PSI, or in pipe larger than 2". See Live Calculation Go Top
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